由I do not think句型说开去--试谈英语的否定转移
发布时间:2005年09月07日
在学英语的过程中,学生常将这样的句子?"我认为这不是个好主意."?译为"I?think?it?isn’t?a?good?idea."?而将这句英语译成汉语时,学生又会译为?"我不认为这是个好主意."?老师又会说译错了,这不符合?"I?don’t?think..."?句型,应译为?"l?don’t?think?it’s?a?good?idea."?


那么,这错误的根源究竟在哪里?这就是“英语的否定转移”在作怪。否定转移在非正式语体中特别常见,它是将语义上属于从属分句(一般为that?clause)的否定词转移到母句中去。允许否定转移的母句动词在语义上可分为以下两组:?


1.看法(OPINION):anticipate,be?supposed?to,believe,calculate,?expect,figure?(infml,AmE),imagine,?reckon?(infml,esp,?in?AmE),suppose,think:?


Eg.?I?don’t?believe?I’ve?met?you?before.?


("I?believe?I?haven’t?met?you?before.")?


Eg.?She?didn’t?imagine?that?we?would?say?anything.?


("She?imagined?we?wouldn’t?say?anything.")?


Eg.?He?didn’t?expect?to?win.?


("He?expected?not?to?win.")?


2.感觉(PERCEPTION)?appear,seem,feel?as?if,look?as?if,sound?as?if?(后三个动词也作infml,esp,?in?AmE,其中用like来代替as?if):?


Eg.?It?doesn’t?seem?that?we?canget?our?money?back.?


"It?seems?that?we?can’t?get?our?money?back."?


Eg.?The?baby?doesn’t?appear?to?be?awake.?


("The?baby?appears?not?to?be?awake.")?


Eg.?It?doesn’t?look?like?it’s?going?to?rain.?


("It?looks?like?it?isn’t?going?to?rain.")?


否定的转移是一种含糊的现象。对于否定词位置不同的两个句子,意思是否相同,或者在多大程度上相同的问题,各人的直觉可能是不同的。但在以下特殊情况下,原来允许否定转移的动词不能将否定转移:?


1.I?think是插入句,可看作与其他部分无关:?


I?wish?you?were?here,then?I?think?I?should?not?feel?like?this.?


2.母句中添加情态动词can’t?mustn’t?wouldn’t时:?


I?can’t?believe?that?they?are?married.?


You?mustn’t?think?he’s?stupid.?


I?wouldn’t?have?imagined?that?Sandra?would?be?here.?


3.由于cannot?help?doing,ought?not,need?not,not?at?all等短语的关系而把I?think隔离。?


I?should?have?thought?sometimes?you?couldn’t?help?thinking?of?the?past.?


I?think?you?ought?not?to?walk?at?night?alone,Mrs.?Moore.?


I?think?you?need?not?be?impolite?to?her,as?well?as?to?her?son.?


"I?think?the?angel?are?not?at?all?in?heaven."?Mr.Esmond?said."?


4.?由于not?just...?but,?just?not...?enough,not?much,?not?quite等以not为核心的副词短语的影响,也不便把否定拿到动词的前面去:?


I?think?I’m?just?not?smart?enough?to?make?any?sense?out?of?for?you.?


"You?think?she’s?not?much?like?you??Brerald?asked.?


But?I?think?that?Elizabeth?was?not?quite?so?certain?of?it?as?I.?


句中含有no,?never,?nothing,?nobody等的不定词时:?


I?should?think?you?never?have?seen?many.?


I?thought?it?explained?nothing.??

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